Advanced Search Filters

Plant Type
Hardiness Zone
Heat Zone
Sunset Zone
Function
Sun Exposure
Soil Moisture
Water Requirement

ARAUCARIA heterophylla

Image of Araucaria heterophylla

Gerald L. Klingaman

Family

Araucariaceae

Botanical Name

ARAUCARIA heterophylla

Plant Common Name

Norfolk Island Pine

General Description

The Norfolk Island pine is a cone-bearing evergreen tree native to Norfolk Island, just east of Australia. It is a large, tall, upright, elegant tree with whorled branches and dark green, fan-like, needle-type foliage. The short, little needles are leathery and linear, densely arranged in flexible, caterpillar-like fingers upon the lateral branches. At the tree's tip, the newest branch growth resembles a graphic, five or six-pointed star with V-form foliage. It produces cones that are either fully male or female, both on the same tree but at different locations.

Norfolk Island pine does best in full sun exposures in a well drained soil. It is quite tolerant along salty beaches and of a wide range of soil pH, quite often used as a street tree, focal plant or beach row windbreak. Plant it in a spacious location as it towers skyward and will drop branches as a means to survive an intense windstorm. Members of the Araucaria can sprout new horizontal branches from its trunk, which is quite rare for a mature conifer tree. It has become a popular gift potted plant for indoor use at Christmas, but as a houseplant soon grows too large for average indoor rooms. Do not position this tree near building foundations! It can be hard-pruned back to its roots to rejuvenate as a shorter, dense, multi-stemmed large shrub. This technique can also be employed every several years to never allow a very tall, single-trunked tree from developing.

Characteristics

  • AHS Heat Zone

    11 - 1

  • USDA Hardiness Zone

    9 - 11

  • Sunset Zone

    H1, H2, 17, 21, 22, 23, 24

  • Plant Type

    Tree

  • Sun Exposure

    Full Sun, Partial Sun, Partial Shade

  • Height

    80'-150' / 24.4m - 45.7m (90)

  • Width

    15'-30' / 4.6m - 9.1m (20)

  • Bloom Time

    Spring

  • Native To

    Australia

Growing Conditions

  • Soil pH

    Acidic, Neutral, Alkaline

  • Soil Drainage

    Well Drained

  • Soil type

    Loam, Sand

  • Tolerances

    Drought, Salt, Soil Compaction

  • Growth Rate

    Fast

  • Water Requirements

    Drought Tolerant, Average Water

  • Habit

    Pyramidal

  • Seasonal Interest

    Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter

Ornamental Features

  • Flower Interest

    Insignificant

  • Flower Color

    Green

  • Fruit Color

    Green

  • Foliage Color (Spring)

    Dark Green

  • Foliage Color (Summer)

    Dark Green

  • Foliage Color (Fall)

    Dark Green

  • Foliage Color (Winter)

    Dark Green

  • Bark Color

    Brown, Sienna

  • Fragrant Flowers

    No

  • Fragrant Fruit

    No

  • Fragrant Foliage

    No

  • Bark or Stem Fragrant

    No

  • Repeat Bloomer

    No

  • Showy Fruit

    No

  • Edible Fruit

    No

  • Showy Foliage

    No

  • Foliage Texture

    Fine

  • Foliage Sheen

    Glossy

  • Evergreen

    Yes

  • Showy Bark

    No

Special Characteristics

  • Bark Texture

    Fissured

  • Usage

    Container, Feature Plant, Houseplant, Screening / Wind Break, Shade Trees, Street Trees, Tropical

  • Sharp or Has Thorns

    No

  • Invasive

    No

  • Self-Sowing

    No