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CAPSICUM chinense (Scotch Bonnet Group)

Image of Capsicum chinense (Scotch Bonnet Group)

Gerald L. Klingaman

Family

Solanaceae

Botanical Name

CAPSICUM chinense( Scotch Bonnet Group)

Plant Common Name

Scotch Bonnet Pepper

General Description

These are some of the hottest peppers in the world. Grown for their pungent flavor and fruity aroma, peppers in the Scotch Bonnet Group are mostly associated with the cuisines of the Caribbean. Though the name “chinense” suggests a Chinese origin, these tender annuals originate from the Americas and have been selected and distributed by Native Americans since prehistory times. Their area of origin was likely the Amazon Basin and domestication probably originated in tropical Peru. Many separate Capsicum chinense exist under different cultivar classes or groups based on fruit shape and other factors, to include the Scotch Bonnet Group.

Scotch Bonnets are bushy plants with rigid, upright stems and large, thin, medium green leaves. Their flowers are five-petaled and white or pale green. There are usually two to six flowers per branch, a trait which sets this species apart from other Capsicum. The thin skinned peppers are typically shaped like a Scottish-tam o’shanter and slightly wrinkled in texture, though some may be more oval or flattened than others. Green fruits or fully colored mature fruits can be eaten, but green have a sharper flavor. Mature fruit colors can be red, orange, yellow, or purple, depending on the cultivated variety. On the interior they have thin spongy ribbing which supports many small, flattened, rounded seeds.

Scotch Bonnet peppers are generally hot, but some selections are milder. Their heat is produced by the chemical capsaicin, which is measured in Scoville units against the Scoville scale (see link at the bottom of the text). The purer the capsaicin, the hotter the pepper, and the higher the Scoville rating. The Scoville range of Habanero peppers is 100,000 to 350,000, depending on the cultivar. Compare this to the average jalapeño, which has a Scoville Rating of 5,000.

Peppers are warm season vegetables that are easy to grow if provided full sun, warmth, and fertile soil with good drainage. If supplemental food is needed, choose a food specially formulated for tomatoes and peppers. Scotch Bonnet seeds are a little slower to germinate than other peppers. The plants prefer very warm conditions and the fruits may take a little longer to mature, particularly in temperate climates. These peppers take 80 to 120 days to harvest from seed. Some vascular wilts and fungal problems can befall them, but proper spacing will keep these diseases at bay and help with fruit production.

People are passionate about their hot peppers and love to grow, eat and discuss the attributes, classification and hotness of various peppers. Peppers in the Scotch Bonnet Group are very similar to those in the Habanero Group. Some of the differences between them include fruit shape (elongated versus bonnet or turban-shaped), origin of use (Habaneros are favored in Latin American cooking and Scotch Bonnets in West Indian) and southern root-knot nematode resistance (Scotch Bonnets exhibit greater resistance than Habaneros).

Scoville Scale for Scotch Bonnets: http://www.chilliworld.com/FactFile/Scoville_Scale.asp.

Characteristics

  • AHS Heat Zone

    12 - 1

  • Sunset Zone

    A1, A2, A3, H1, H2, 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24

  • Plant Type

    Vegetable

  • Sun Exposure

    Full Sun

  • Height

    1'-4' / 0.3m - 1.2m

  • Width

    1'-3' / 0.3m - 0.9m

  • Bloom Time

    Indeterminate

  • Native To

    South America

Growing Conditions

  • Soil pH

    Acidic, Neutral, Alkaline

  • Soil Drainage

    Well Drained

  • Soil type

    Loam, Sand

  • Tolerances

    Pollution

  • Growth Rate

    Fast

  • Water Requirements

    Drought Tolerant, Average Water

  • Habit

    Oval/Rounded

  • Seasonal Interest

    Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter

Ornamental Features

  • Flower Interest

    Insignificant

  • Flower Color

    White, Yellow Green, Lavender

  • Fruit Color

    Yellow, Red, Green, Purple, Orange

  • Foliage Color (Spring)

    Green

  • Foliage Color (Summer)

    Green

  • Foliage Color (Fall)

    Green

  • Foliage Color (Winter)

    Green

  • Bark Color

    Green

  • Fragrant Flowers

    No

  • Fragrant Fruit

    Yes

  • Fragrant Foliage

    No

  • Bark or Stem Fragrant

    No

  • Flower Petal Number

    Single

  • Repeat Bloomer

    Yes

  • Showy Fruit

    Yes

  • Edible Fruit

    Yes

  • Showy Foliage

    No

  • Foliage Texture

    Medium

  • Foliage Sheen

    Glossy

  • Evergreen

    Yes

  • Showy Bark

    No

Special Characteristics

  • Usage

    Container, Edible, Herb / Vegetable

  • Sharp or Has Thorns

    No

  • Invasive

    No

  • Self-Sowing

    Yes