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CATASETUM discolor

Image of Catasetum discolor

Family

Orchidaceae

Botanical Name

CATASETUM discolor

Plant Common Name

Catasetum Orchid, Orchid

General Description

This deciduous tropical orchid produces small, upside-down fragrant flowers of yellow-green in late fall or early winter. Catasetum discolor grows in a variety of inland highland environments across its native habitat, from Colombia to northeastern Brazil. It grows either as an epiphyte (grows on trees), lithophyte (grows on rocks) or as a terrestrial plant growing on sandy soils.

"Catasetum" is a Greek compound word meaning "down bristle." This orchid genus is unique in having different gendered flowers on the same plant. Male flowers have an antenna-like trigger device that snaps pollen onto the backs of visiting bees. These pollen-covered insects then find a hooded female flower and unknowingly pollinate it. Because male and female flowers look different, people may have considerable difficulty identifying plants, especially if growing conditions or gender diphasy prevents the development of both flower genders on a single plant at the same time.

Each plant forms a clump of pointed, fleshy pseudobulbs that cling to trees or rocks with their fleshy roots. In porous sandy soils, the roots splay out to anchor the plant so it remains upright. The light green, thin, soft leaves are pleated and lance-shaped. They shrivel and drop away by midwinter as the plant enters a natural winter dormancy during the tropical dry season. Flowering occurs so late that the leaves may or may not still be present: from late autumn to midwinter. An erect flower stalk rises from the pseudobulbs and carries either all male flowers or all female flowers. A plant can produce both flower types, but always on separate flower stalks. Male Catasetum flowers have longer, showier petals than the smaller, hooded female flowers. In shade a plant may only produce male flowers, whereas bright light encourages both female and male flowers. Both male and female flowers are light green to yellow-green, with blushes of rusty red.

Where hardy, this catasetum can be grown outdoors mounted on a tree trunk or in a hanging basket or slatted wood box. Those grown in the ground require sandy soil. In frostier climes it should be grown indoors in a warm greenhouse or very bright sunroom. Plant in coarse bark nuggets for orchid culture and provide full sun to very bright dappled shade. Too little light prevents good flowering. Water the orchid freely when new growth and foliage is present (mid-spring to fall). From fall to spring, water very little. Do not begin spring watering until new leaf growth reaches two inches (5 cm) long. Good air circulation with high humidity will encourage good growth. Fertilize weekly with a dilute solution of balanced fertilizer from spring to late summer. Don't be alarmed when the leaves turn yellow in fall; this is the signal dormancy has set in and to markedly reduce watering.

Characteristics

  • AHS Heat Zone

    12 - 5

  • USDA Hardiness Zone

    11 - 15

  • Sunset Zone

    H1, H2

  • Plant Type

    Tender Perennial

  • Sun Exposure

    Partial Sun, Partial Shade

  • Height

    18"-30" / 45.7cm - 76.2cm

  • Width

    24"-32" / 61.0cm - 81.3cm

  • Bloom Time

    Fall, Late Fall, Early Winter, Winter

  • Native To

    South America, Brazil

Growing Conditions

  • Soil pH

    Acidic, Neutral

  • Soil Drainage

    Well Drained

  • Soil type

    Sand

  • Growth Rate

    Slow

  • Water Requirements

    Average Water

  • Habit

    Clump-Forming

  • Seasonal Interest

    Fall, Winter

Ornamental Features

  • Flower Interest

    Showy

  • Flower Color

    Yellow, Yellow Green, Burgundy, Dark Red

  • Flower Color Modifier

    Bicolor

  • Fragrant Flowers

    Yes

  • Fragrant Fruit

    No

  • Fragrant Foliage

    No

  • Bark or Stem Fragrant

    No

  • Flower Petal Number

    Single

  • Repeat Bloomer

    No

  • Showy Fruit

    No

  • Edible Fruit

    No

  • Showy Foliage

    No

  • Foliage Texture

    Coarse

  • Evergreen

    No

  • Showy Bark

    No

Special Characteristics

  • Usage

    Container, Hanging Basket, Houseplant, Mixed Border, Tropical

  • Sharp or Has Thorns

    No

  • Invasive

    No

  • Self-Sowing

    No