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CITRUS medica 'Etrog'

Image of Citrus medica 'Etrog'

Carol Cloud Bailey



Botanical Name

CITRUS medica 'Etrog'

Plant Common Name


Special Notice

This entry has yet to be reviewed and approved by L2G editors.

General Description

An important cultivar in religious ceremonies, citron ‘Etrog’ is one of the oldest cultivated. The fruit is elliptical with pale-yellow, bumpy thick aromatic skin. The flesh is crisp, pale, acid, firm and seedy. The fruit will hang on the tree and continue to enlarge until harvested. Most agree ‘Etrog’ should be harvested when moderately sized before it is large enough to break branches. They ripen individually and are harvested by hand as they mature. Many can produce fruit throughout the year, but most ripen from early summer through fall.

Intensely fragrant fruit, leaves and flowers distinguish this ancient citrus. Citron is believed to be the first citrus in cultivation, and has been used both for food and medicine. Today, it is eaten candied in fruitcakes and holiday breads. The true origin of this citron is unknown, but like most Citrus it is probably from the northwestern reaches of India. There have been seeds of this fruit found in archeological excavations that are about 4000 years old. Citrus medica arrived in the United States with Spanish explorers and commercial production began in California in the late 1800s.

Citron ‘Etrog’ is a shrub or small tree which is evergreen and slow-growing. Its stiff twigs and branches are spiny and covered with strongly fragrant, elliptical to lance-shaped leaves that are much like those on lemon trees. The flowers are borne throughout the year but appear most abundantly from midwinter to spring. The fragrant flowers are white. Unlike most citrus, they are not grafted onto rootstocks.

Citron plants are more cold sensitive than other Citrus. They prefer full sun, well-drained soil and areas with warm, dry winters and cool summers. The trees are somewhat drought tolerant once established but must have regular water for good fruit production. Citrus trees are heavy feeders and require regular fertilization. Citrons are often pruned so the branches are low or close to the ground. This is due to the large, heavy fruit which often bend branches to the ground and require staking for support.

Grow citron trees in subtropical and tropical yards and orchards. They also make great container-grown patio or conservatory specimens.


  • AHS Heat Zone

    12 - 9

  • USDA Hardiness Zone

    9 - 11

  • Sunset Zone

    H1, H2, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24

  • Plant Type


  • Sun Exposure

    Full Sun, Partial Sun

  • Height

    8'-12' / 2.4m - 3.7m

  • Width

    6'-10' / 1.8m - 3.0m

  • Bloom Time

    Early Spring, Spring, Winter, Late Winter, Indeterminate

  • Native To

    Southern Asia, India, Melanesia, Australia

Growing Conditions

  • Soil pH

    Acidic, Neutral

  • Soil Drainage

    Well Drained

  • Soil type

    Clay, Loam, Sand

  • Growth Rate


  • Water Requirements

    Average Water

  • Habit


  • Seasonal Interest

    Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter

Ornamental Features

  • Flower Interest


  • Flower Color

    White, Purple

  • Fruit Color


  • Foliage Color (Spring)

    Green, Dark Green

  • Foliage Color (Summer)

    Green, Dark Green

  • Foliage Color (Fall)

    Green, Dark Green

  • Foliage Color (Winter)

    Green, Dark Green

  • Bark Color

    Tan, Brown, Sandy Brown

  • Fragrant Flowers


  • Fragrant Fruit


  • Fragrant Foliage


  • Bark or Stem Fragrant


  • Flower Petal Number


  • Repeat Bloomer


  • Showy Fruit


  • Edible Fruit


  • Showy Foliage


  • Foliage Texture


  • Foliage Sheen


  • Evergreen


  • Showy Bark


Special Characteristics

  • Bark Texture


  • Usage

    Container, Edible, Feature Plant, Fruit / Fruit Tree, Hedges, Houseplant, Shade Trees, Topiary / Bonsai / Espalier, Tropical

  • Sharp or Has Thorns


  • Invasive


  • Attracts

    Birds, Butterflies

  • Self-Sowing