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TILIA x europaea

Image of Tilia x europaea

Jesse Saylor

Family

Tiliaceae

Botanical Name

TILIA x europaea

Plant Common Name

Common Lime, European Linden

Special Notice

This entry has yet to be reviewed and approved by L2G editors.

General Description

Elegant and stately when seen in a park or lining a boulevard, European linden is a versatile shade and specimen tree for spacious landscapes. A large deciduous tree, it is a hybrid that occurred in garden settings in Europe between Tilia platyphyllos and Tilia cordata. The bark is smooth and gray, with age becoming ridged and furrowed.

The deep green leaves are heart-shaped with tiny teeth on their edges and with long stems. The base of each leaf is unequal. In midsummer, pendent clusters of fragrant off-white flowers occur, attracting nectar-seeking bees in profusion. The ribbed, pea-sized, whitish tan fruits (nutlets) dangle downward with a keel-like bract (modified leaf) and are showiest in late summer. In fall the foliage becomes yellow, tan, and honey brown.

Grow European linden in full to partial sun in a fertile, deep, moist soil that ideally is neutral to alkaline in pH. This species is tolerant of slightly acidy soils as well as wind, air pollution and drought once established. It is impressive as a park tree and creates a large rounded but pyramid-shaped effect atop the lawn. Unfortunately, Japanese beetles may defoliate the tree during a large infestation.

Characteristics

  • AHS Heat Zone

    8 - 1

  • USDA Hardiness Zone

    3 - 7

  • Sunset Zone

    A3, 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17

  • Plant Type

    Tree

  • Sun Exposure

    Full Sun, Partial Sun

  • Height

    60'-95' / 18.3m - 29.0m (70)

  • Width

    35'-48' / 10.7m - 14.6m

  • Bloom Time

    Summer

  • Native To

    Hybrid Origin

Growing Conditions

  • Soil pH

    Neutral, Alkaline

  • Soil Drainage

    Well Drained

  • Soil type

    Clay, Loam, Sand

  • Tolerances

    Drought

  • Growth Rate

    Medium

  • Water Requirements

    Drought Tolerant, Average Water

  • Habit

    Pyramidal

  • Seasonal Interest

    Spring, Summer, Fall

Ornamental Features

  • Flower Interest

    Insignificant

  • Flower Color

    Orange, Yellow Green

  • Fruit Color

    Light Green, Ivory, Silver

  • Foliage Color (Spring)

    Green

  • Foliage Color (Summer)

    Green, Dark Green

  • Foliage Color (Fall)

    Gold, Tan, Sandy Brown

  • Bark Color

    Gray

  • Fragrant Flowers

    Yes

  • Fragrant Fruit

    No

  • Fragrant Foliage

    No

  • Bark or Stem Fragrant

    No

  • Flower Petal Number

    Single

  • Repeat Bloomer

    No

  • Showy Fruit

    No

  • Edible Fruit

    Yes

  • Showy Foliage

    Yes

  • Foliage Texture

    Medium

  • Foliage Sheen

    Matte

  • Evergreen

    No

  • Showy Bark

    Yes

Special Characteristics

  • Bark Texture

    Platy

  • Usage

    Feature Plant, Shade Trees, Street Trees

  • Sharp or Has Thorns

    No

  • Invasive

    No

  • Attracts

    Birds

  • Self-Sowing

    No